Synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging field that combines molecular biology and engineering. It represents a paradigm shift – biology is becoming an engineering discipline that aims to use engineering principles to design and construct cells and organisms with novel functions. A great potential of synthetic biology has been rapidly unleashed with several simultaneous recent developments including i) the exponential growth of DNA sequence information in all the branches of life, ii) large datasets and accelerated research on biomolecular systems, and iii) the rapid drop in the price of DNA synthesis during the last decade. In coming years, it is widely believed that synthetic biology will transform entire sectors of human life and the world economy, including the chemical industry, medicine, material science, food production and agriculture.